Monday, April 6, 2009

Getting Started with Group Policy Management Console (GPMC)

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GPMC (Group Policy Management Console)
The GPMC is one of Microsoft's best new features in all of Windows Server 2003. Within the GPMC is a rich variety of tools for creating, editing, observing, modeling and reporting on all aspects of Group Policy. Previously GPMC was not there bundled with Windows Server 2003, But Microsoft made it available though their download site. You can install and download GPMC from the below link
The latest version of GPMC is 1.0.2 with service pack 1, which was released in 2004.
GPMC (Group Policy Management Console) Introduction
Remember that Microsoft designed the GPMC for Windows Server 2003 rather than W2K. Get your copy of GPMC.msi as a download from Microsoft's site. While I am assured that the GPMC will work on Windows 2000 Domains, I have not got it to run. (However, I have not tried that hard as I now prefer Server 2003.)
The GPMC unifies Group Policy management across your Active Directory forest. Before the GPMC, administrators needed multiple tools to manage Group Policy; the Microsoft Active Directory Users and Computers, the Delegation Wizard, and the ACL Editor. Not only does the GPMC integrate the existing Group Policy tools, but also it brings the following exciting new capabilities:
* A user interface that makes it easier to create and edit each Group Policy.
* New WMI filtering means that you can apply policies to particular machine, or only if there is enough disk space.
* Interfaces to Backup, restore, import, and copy Group Policy Objects (GPOs).
* Simplified management of Group Policy-related security.
* Reporting for GPO settings and Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP) data.
Getting started with GPMC
After I downloaded the GPMC from Microsoft's site, I installed the application by double clicking GPMC.msi. At first I carried on in my old ways. When I wanted to check a group policy I launched Active Directory Users and Computer and right clicked the domain, properties, and thence to the Group Policy tab.
However I soon found that you could add a GPMC snap-in to the MMC, and this is now my preferred method of accessing the GPMC. Microsoft GPMC
Right from you outset GPMC gives you the big picture. The GUI encourages you to survey the range of places to look for Group Policies, from the Forest at the top, through to the Domain and down to the Sites. The OU Group Policies are hidden under the domain, note that OUs have a little book symbol that is absent from container objects such as Users, Builtin and Computers. What this means is that if you see the book symbol then you can create a Group Policy, whereas if all you see is a blank yellow folder, then you cannot create a Group Policy at that location. The GPMC also lists any Models or Policy Results.
RSoP Snap-in (Resultant Set of Policy)
Microsoft provide a snap-in called RSoP for showing a given combination of policy settings. I find that if you install the GPMC, then you do not really do not need this RSoP. However, if you have Windows 2000 and no GPMC then the RSoP is intuitive to use and comes in two modes:
* Logging mode. In logging mode, the RSoP snap-in tracks the policies that you apply. In this mode, the tool shows the actual policies for a given user or computer.
* Planning mode. In planning mode, the snap-in indicates the set of policies that would be applied if you deployed the policy. You can perform what-if analyses on the user and computer; the domain, and organizational unit.
I am so pleased that Windows 2000's Secedit has been superseded by Gpupdate on XP, the old Secedit syntax was horrendous. Mostly, I just run plain Gpupdate in a 'Dos Box', occasionally, I append the following switches:
/force reapplies all settings.
/target:computer or /target:user applies only the user or computer section of your policy. Normally I would use plain Gpupdate without the optional target switch.
/logoff Useful for settings that do not apply until the user logs on again.
/boot Handy for configurations which need the computer to restart.
N.B. /boot does not mean apply the settings every time the computer reboots.
While, I prefer the GPMC console above, Gpresult is a handy command line utility to display the results of Group Policy. What I particularly like is the /user switch. Take the example where you are logged on as the administrator, but wish to test a user called Psycho's settings. Rather than logoff then logon as that user, just type: gpresult /USER psycho. Do remember the /USER. This command would be a mistake: gpresult /psycho.
This handy command line utility restores the two default Group Policy objects to their original state (Domain and Domain Controllers). You find this 'get out of jail card' = Dcpgofix in the \windows\repair folder. However because the \windows folder is in the 'Path' you can just run Dcpgofix in a 'Dos Box.
Syntax and Switches
dcgpofix [/ignoreschema][/target: {domain | dc | both}]
Example: dcgpofix /target: GuyDom
This tool will restore the default domain policy and also the default domain controllers policy to their state just after installation. Naturally, when you run dcgpofix, you lose all changes made to these Group Policies.
By specifying the /ignoreschema parameter, you can enable Dcgpofix.exe to work with different versions of Active Directory. However, default policy objects might not be restored to their original state. To ensure compatibility, use the version of Dcgpofix.exe that is installed with the operating system.

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