Sunday, November 21, 2010

Components of Windows Server 2008 Active Directory, PDF

The below PDF document I got from Microsoft Downloads, helps to better understand the components of Windows Server 2008 Active Directory. The document provides a graphical representation of all the components included in the Active Directory, and it helps to better understand the additional features came with the new version of AD.

Sponsored Links

Friday, September 17, 2010

How does Group policy loop back processing work?

 Group Policies are normally applied to the user or their PC depending on where they are located in Active Directory. There are occasions, especially for terminal servers, when you wish users to have certain policies applied depending on which computer they log on to. This is where the loopback policy comes into its own.Two modes options when applying loopback processing:
  1.      Replace Mode: The user policy is defined entirely from the GPOs associated with the machine. Any GPOs associated with the user are ignored.
  2.      Merge Mode: The user policy settings applied are the combination of those included in both the machine and user GPOs. Where conflicts exist, the machine GPOs "win".

A common use of loopback is on Terminal Services machines. In this scenario, it is common for the Group Policy administrator to set specific user policy settings for the server to ensure that all users using the machine receive a defined set of user policy settings.

In order to define the Loopback Processing setting, the following steps should be followed.

   1. Open the Group Policy Object editor (gpedit.msc). See Create/Edit GPOs for details.
   2. Expand the Computer Configuration node. Under Computer Configuration, expand the Administrative Templates node.
   3. Within the Administrative Templates node, expand the System node, and then the Group Policy node.
   4. Locate the setting "User Group Policy loopback processing mode". Double click this setting, and define the setting as needed.

    * Merge Mode: When Merge mode is selected, application of user-based group policy begins as normal:
·         The distinguished name of the user is evaluated for it's location in the Active Directory. For example, the user John Smith in the Boston OU at BigCompany Corporation might have a distinguished name of CN=John Smith,OU=Boston,DC=BigCompany,DC=Com.
·         Group policy parses the Distinguished Name, and attempts to locate policies that apply to users at each "stage" of the name. The search is performed from left to right (e.g. the Boston OU is searched first, then the domain root of BigCompany). Finally, the Active Directory Site of the user is evaluated for user policies.
·         Based on the effective permissions of the user, Group Policy determines which of these policy objects (if any) should apply to the user.
·         Policies are then applied in a last in, first out (LIFO) series. So, any policies that applied at the site level are applied first, then the domain, and finally at the OU containing the user. If multiple policies were defined at the OU or domain level, the policy with the highest precedence is added to the list first (so it will be processed last, and overwrite earlier policies).

To this point, policy processing is exactly like normal. However, once 'normal' processing has completed, a second iteration begins:

·         As before, Goup Policy evaluates the Distinguished Name - except this time, it is the Distinguished Name of the Computer, rather than the User. For our example, let's say that the computer is in the Headquarters OU under the BigCompany root. The Distinguished Name is OU=Headquarters,DC=BigCompany,DC=Com.
·         The same processing rules apply as before: Group Policy evaluates policies at each level of the Distinguished Name, adding policies to the stack of policies to apply. The difference is that Group Policy is now searching for User policies that are defined in the computer's organization structure.
·         This second set of policies is applied (again, Last In, First Out), with any policy setting conflicts being "won" by the last policy to apply the setting. So, if more restrictive settings are defined for users in a policy object linked to the Headquarters OU, those settings will apply to the user when logging onto a machine with Merge mode applied.

Typically, Merge mode is defined on Terminal Servers in an environment. The reason for this is that Administrators typically want to enforce a specific set of desktop and security settings, to help minimize potential variables that lead to unpredictable behavior on the Terminal Server. By enabling Merge mode, and defining all potential problem policy settings, the Administrator can enforce a consistent user experience.

    * Replace Mode: Replace mode is actually simpler to explain than Merge mode:
·         In Replace mode, the user's Distinguished Name is not evaluated for Group Policy processing. Instead, we rely entirely on the Distinguished Name of the machine the user is logging onto.
·         Again using the previous example, the Distinguished Name OU=Headquarters,DC=BigCompany,DC=Com would be evaluated for User Policies, with any policies that the user has permissions to read and apply being enforced.
·         As before, the list of policies to apply is built from closest to farthest away (OU=Headquarters first, then DC=BigCompany, etc..). The list is then applied in reverse order, so that the OU settings have highest precadence.
·         The "normal policy set" for the user is ignored completely. Part of policy application is to delete the settings applied previously, so no (managed) settings will carry over to apply when Replace is defined, unless that setting was also defined in the User Settings applied during Replace mode.

Replace mode is useful for environments where specific policies are required regardless of the rights and settings of the user. Kiosk systems are a good example of this; an Administrator would typically have an unrestricted desktop experience. If that user logs onto a Kiosk machine, he or she would normally have a "wide open" desktop. This might be dangerous, so it may be useful to enable Replace mode to enforce a specific set of enforced settings.

Sunday, September 12, 2010

XMPP becoming common standard for real-time chat applications

As Facebook Chat, Google Talk, Lotus Same-time and Jabber etc have come under the same platform of the real-time communication protocol  XMPP, seemingly other chat clients tend to focus on changing their plat form to XMPP. Google talk and Jabber have already proven and got recognized for its less vulnerability behavior comparing to Yahoo messenger and Windows messengers, so the main strength of XMMP is its security. 

The Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is an open technology for real-time communication, which powers a wide range of applications including instant messaging, presence, multi-party chat, voice and video calls, collaboration, lightweight middleware, content syndication, and generalized routing of XML data. It is build based on Extensible Mark-up Language (XML). Unlike most instant messaging protocols, XMPP uses an open systems approach of development and application, by which anyone may implement an XMPP service and interoperate with other organizations' implementations. The software implementation and many client applications are distributed as free and open source software.

Sponsored Links

The core technology behind XMPP was invented by Jeremie Miller in 1998, refined in the Jabber open-source community in 1999 and 2000, and formalized by the IETF in 2002 and 2003, resulting in publication of the XMPP RFCs in 2004.

The first IM service based on XMPP was, which has operated continuously since 1999 and has offered free accounts to users of XMPP. From 1999 until February 2006 the service used jabberd as its server software, at which time it migrated to ejabberd. In January 2010, the service plans to migrate to proprietary M-Link software produced by Isode Ltd.

In August 2005, Google introduced Google Talk, a combination VoIP and IM system which uses XMPP for its instant messaging function and as a base for its voice and file transfer signalling protocol. 

The social-networking giant Facebook opened up its chat feature to third-party applications via XMPP. The Facebook developers' site notes that Facebook Chat does not actually run an XMPP server internally, but merely presents an XMPP interface to clients; consequently, some server-side features like roster editing cannot be done via XMPP.

In addition to Google Talk, many other public IM services use XMPP, including Live Journal's "LJ Talk" and Nokia's Ovi. Furthermore, several enterprise IM software products that do not natively use XMPP nevertheless include gateways to XMPP, including IBM Lotus Sametime and Microsoft Office Communications Server.

Although the core technology is stable, the XMPP community continues to define various XMPP extensions through an open standards process run by the XMPP Standards Foundation. There is also an active community of open-source and commercial developers, who produce a wide variety of XMPP-based software.

Thursday, September 9, 2010

Is there an effective way to merge two Facebook accounts?

Currently Facebook does not provide account merging feature for its users. Facebook does not allow you to merge your duplicate account to your much active account.

But you can try below work around solution to bring two accounts together, this is very important to keep only one Facebook account because maintaining multiple accounts is a violation of Facebook's Terms of Use.

  • Copy your profile content (e.g. photos, notes, etc.) and add it manually to your more active account. Unfortunately, there will be some things you cannot transfer, such as Friends and Wall posts. Once you have moved all information onto a single account, please deactivate your old account from the Settings tab of the Account page. Afterward, you can add email addresses and networks to your new account from the Account page.
  • You can use 'Suggest Friend' option and bring your friends who are in your unwanted account to your active account.

Thursday, August 5, 2010

How to login to multiple google / gmail account in firefox?

Can I login to multiple gmail / google account in the same web browser? This is the question many of us would have in mind, because most of us use multiple google account for different purpose.
Now google is giving you opportunity to use your multiple google account in same browser, thanks google, now firefox lovers need not to go back to internet explorer to login to your secondary email!
Open your google account management page from this link:
as you see in the below picture, you will get one option to switch the multiple login option on or off. If it is in off mode, please turn it on.

Click on the change link there:

Sponsored Links

There will be a message telling you that this is an advanced feature that works for Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Sites, Google Reader, Google Voice, App Engine and Google Code.

A new drop-down will appear next to your email address in Gmail, and other relevant Google products. This drop-down allows you to click on it, and sign into any new Google account from the drop-down menu without having to close out of your currently open Google account.
 If you check the URL for each account, you will see that Google now numbers each one differently to identify them distinctly.
Note that your default account becomes the first account that you sign in to. This means that when you sign into non-Google products unable to support Multiple Accounts, that your sign-in will be done via your default account.
You will need to check all these terms and then click Save changes button at the bottom left corner of the page as shown in the image below. Once you have enabled this you can sign in to your another secondary google account using this feature in the same browser and switch between them using the drop down at top right corner as shown in the image below.

After completing this process, you will see your secondary account in a drop down box, as seen in the picture below.
Remember, If you don’t see this feature in your google account settings, just wait for some days as it will be rolled out soon across all the google account then you will see and use it.

Tuesday, July 13, 2010

Outlook .OST files and its usage.

An OST file (.ost) is an offline folder file in Microsoft Outlook. Offline folders make it possible for the user to work offline and then to synchronize changes with the Exchange server the next time they connect. The ability to work offline is useful in environments with limited or unreliable connectivity.

When Outlook is used in conjunction with Microsoft Exchange Server, you can set it to work with the Exchange mailbox offline. At that time, Outlook will make an exact copy of your mailbox on the Exchange Server, called offline folders, and store it in a local file, which is called offline folder file and has a .ost file extension. OST is the abbreviation for "Offline Storage Table".

When working offline, you can do everything with the offline folders just as if it were the mailbox on the server. For example, you can send emails which are actually put in the offline Outbox, you can also receive new messages from the other online mailboxes, and you can make changes to the emails and other items as you want.

However, all these changes will not be reflected to your mailbox on the Exchange server until you connect to the network again and synchronize the offline folders with the server.

During the synchronization process, Outlook will connect to the Exchange server via network, copy all the changes made so that the offline folders will be identical to the mailbox again. You can select to synchronize only a specific folder, a group of folders, or all the folders. A log file will be used to record all the important information about the synchronization, for your reference later.

Since Outlook 2003, Microsoft introduces a Cached Exchange Mode, which is actually an improved version of original offline folders. It is featured in more efficient synchronization mechanisms and more convenient offline operations.

Offline folders or Cached Exchange Mode has several advantages:

Make it possible for you to work with your Exchange mailbox even there are no network connections available.

When disaster happens on the Exchange server, such as server crashes, server database corruption, etc., the offline folder file on the local computer still contain a copy of your Exchange mailbox, with some offline updates. At that time, you can utilize Advanced Exchange Recovery to recover most of the contents in your Exchange mailbox by scanning and processing the data in local offline folder file.

The offline folder (.ost) file, like Outlook personal folders (.pst) file, is normally located in a predefined folder.

For Windows NT, 2000, XP and 2003 server, the folder is:

C:\Documents and Settings\\Local Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook

You may also search for file "*.ost" in your local computer to find the location of the file.

The OST file is the local copy of your Exchange mailbox, which contains all your most important personal communication data and information, including emails, folders, posts, appointments, meeting requests, contacts, distribution lists, tasks, task requests, journals, notes, etc.

 When you have various problems with your mailbox or offline folders, for example, the Exchange server crashes or you cannot synchronize the offline updates with the server, we highly recommend you to use Advanced Exchange Recovery to recover all data in it.

Thursday, April 29, 2010

Nokia N8 released, with 12 MP camera and HD video.

Nokia, the world’s leading cell phone maker unveiled its flagship N8 smart phone, after the last high-end hit phone N95, which was unveiled in 2006. N8 will have added features like the new Symbian 3 software and it looks like the Motorola Devour and has a 3.5-inch OLED, capacitive touch screen, a 12 megapixel camera with Carl Zeiss optics, Xenon flash and a large sensor that rivals those found in compact digital cameras and HD-quality video with Dolby Digital Plus surround sound by plugging into home theatre system.
It consist all of the fun things like access to Web TV services that deliver programs, news and entertainment from channels like CNN,  Entertainment, Paramount and National Geographic. 

Sponsored Links

The N8—a bar-raising, iPhone-sized device the truly exceeds any of the handset maker’s previous offerings.
For one, the N8 is the first Nokia phone to run the Symbian 3 platform, which brings with it gesture support for things like multitouch, flick scrolling and pinch zooming. Second, there’s also a 12-megapixel camera with a Carl Zeiss lens, as well as the ability to capture and edit—on device—high-definition video footage.
Thirdly, Ovi Maps, for free walking and driving navigation, is included, and (benefit No. 4) so are the types of social networking perks that top the feature lists of most phones. Along with the N8, Nokia has introduced a new software environment called Qt—which, in beta form, is now available to developers.
Social networking is second nature to the Nokia N8. People can update their status, share location and photos, and view live feeds from Facebook and Twitter in a single app directly on the home screen. Calendar events from social networks can also be transferred to the device calendar.
Last week Nokia cut its profit outlook and said the sales start for phones with Symbian 3 was delayed to the third quarter - sending its shares sharply lower. Nokia lacks a top-range model to challenge Apple's iPhone three years after its launch.
It will go on sale in mid 2010 and retail for $493, excluding subsidies and taxes. The Indian price for N8 will be around 23000 INR.

Opera 10.52 released for Mac platform.

One of the most popular web browsers, Opera, released its new stable version for Mac OS. Market leaders such as Firefox and Internet Explorer will be facing real competition from Opera now. But Apple’s own product, Safari, is the most used browser on Mac platform.
The new Opera 10.52 is claimed to be 10 times faster than the Opera 10.10 version. So Firefox and Chrome for Mac already have a tough competition in terms of speed. Opera 10.52 features native Cocoa integration, multi-touch trackpad gestures support, and Growl notification support.
Opera has built the new 10.52 web browser on native Cocoa framework and hence it appears to be more responsive. New 10.52 version brings along HTML5 Video and SVG support. Also the new Carakan JavaScript engine and new Vega graphic library play a major role in boosting the speed of this browser.

Sponsored Links

The design of Opera for Mac has been overhauled and the browser also supports multi-touch gestures on the glass trackpad of MacBook Pros. Opera has also added Growl notification support and so you'll get certain notifications if your download is complete or pop-up is blocked, etc. Opera also brings Turbo compression technology in this browser which allows surfing even in slower or congested networks.
You can download new Opera version for Mac from below link:

Monday, April 19, 2010

Another exciting feature for Gmail, drag-and-drop your attachments!

 Another exciting feature from Google, and now it is for Gmail, the most popular email service over the internet.
New Gmail feature, which it claims will offer a quick and easy way to add attachments and related media to messages.
Chrome and Firefox 3.6 users can now drag-and-drop files into the email body when attaching them. This replaces the usual method of clicking the 'attach a file' option, and will be helpful for users who already have the associated folder open and a number of files to attach.
"Suppose I want to attach some files to an email, and I already have a folder open containing those files. I used to have to click 'Attach a file', find the photos, click them, etc. [Now] I can just drag and drop the files to attach them," said Google software engineer Adam de Boor in a blog post.

Sponsored Links

How does it work?
 Just login to your gmail account from Firefox or Chrome, and select compose email. Now, select any photo or document from your hard drive, drag and drop it into Gmail’s compose window.
 But, for sure, it won’t work with any version of Internet Explorer! It seems Google intentionally excluded IE from this feature, in order to drive IE users to their own product , Chrome.

Friday, April 16, 2010

Facebook: How to see old wall posts quickly, rather than pressing ‘Older Posts’ several times?

Update: Facebook Timeline is here! You can scroll down through the timeline and find out your posts and photos that you have added months and years back. Click here to learn how to enable timeline. 
Are you a regular updater of Facebook Wall? And are you so old in Facebook joined at its earlier years? Then, It could be always interesting to see the old posts that you have put in your facebook wall, I just made an attempt to fetch those posts, but clicking the ‘older posts’ arrow in the bottom of your wall will be of course a hectic task. It is really painful to do that, see a comment from a Facebook user:
“But to go that far, you'll have to keep pressing. I know that's such a pain. I wish they could fix it, but you'll have to keep doing that again and again.” 

So is there any short cut to see my older posts? Unfortunately, Facebook doesn't provide any official tools to find out the older posts, and there is no any better shortcut to see your older posts very quickly. I googled it many times, but didn’t get a proper solution.  

But Facebook is keep on changing every day, and hopefully they will soon add a feature for the quick view of the old posts, just like searching the posts by date. 

Try the below tip other than pressing ‘Older Posts’, which may help you eliminate scrolling though some unwanted contents. 

Click on your profile and open up your wall (as if your friends see your wall), click on ‘Options’ on top right. Now you will get an option that looks like as in the blow picture.
Select only your name, now paste the below Java script on the address bar and hit enter, this script will press the 'Older Posts' button every four seconds, so keep the browser window free. Scroll down and check after few minutes, you can see all the older posts displayed. 


javascript:function clrt(){alert('Stopped Post Load');if(f_sM){clearTimeout(f_sM);}};function showMore(){ProfileStream.getInstance().showMore();f_sM = setTimeout(showMore, 4000); xsm=document.getElementById('profile_pager_container');xsm.addEventListener('click',clrt,false)}; showMore(); 

If you see your old post which you are looking for is already visible, just press on the blue area of 'Older Posts' tab, so you can stop the script. 

 Hope this helped you. But if you know any better idea to fetch out older posts so quickly, please posts it below in the comments.

Thursday, March 25, 2010

Laptop is past, Rolltop is the future sensation!

      The changing concepts of Computers are boosting more and more innovations. Here is the blue print of the replacement of Laptops! This is called Rolltop, it can replace not only laptop, but, tablet PC and even a Television. See this video, and experience the changin concepts of future computing!

This concept is based on OLED-Display technology and a multi touch screen, it can be used a laptop while it weighs as much as mini notebook. It comes with a 13 inch screen while being used a laptop and when being used as a monitor, you could get a cool 17 inches screen. Power supply, multi media integrated pen and even a holding belt are integrated in the ROLL TOP and it certainly is an all-in-one gadget.

We can assume that this product will be manufactured and marketed, soon and if so, you could carry your laptop like a newspaper by rolling it up, and making sure that you are not burdened by heavy laptop bags. While this is still a concept, we can hope to see it in real, as every concept is materialized by the innovators!

Monday, March 22, 2010

How to add favicon (favorite icon) into your Blogger blog. A step by step tutorial.


A favicon, the short form of favorite Icon, is a small icon which is displayed on the browser tabs just left side of your website or blog title. Favicon has been very important element for websites or blogs, as it can act as symbol of your websites, as such, by seeing ‘f’ in white color with blue background, we will immediately come to know it is facebook.
Here let us talk about adding favicon to your blogger or Wordpress blog.
First of all, you have to design your favorite icon, following the trend, it is better to make the first letter of your blog name as foreground and your favorite color as background.
Now, you have to change the picture into .ico format. You can do it from this website (a webpage will open in new window)
Click on ‘brows’ there, and select your picture that you already created. And now select ‘generate favicon icon’.
Now you will get an output of .ico files, download the file to your desk top.
Upload the .ico file to your Flickr or Sydrive or any other online storage location (remember; photobucket and picasa does not support .ico files)
Now, copy the bare file location of the .ico file, from the online storage.
Note: Copy the location and paste it into another browser, and check if it is displaying correctly!
If you still didn’t understand how to copy the file location; right click on the image in browser, and select ‘copy link location’ (in firefox) and now paste it in a notepad file. Now you got the file location URL.
Also make sure that you have uploaded the .ico file in the ‘public folder’ in Skydrive or flickr, otherwise it will not display in public!
Now modify below code with your .ico URL

< link href="http://faviconurl" rel="shortcut icon"/>
< link href="http://faviconurl" rel="icon"/>
Replace http://faviconurl to the URL that you have already copied in the notepad.
Now, go to blogger settings page, and go to ‘Layout’, then ‘Edit HTML’, expand to ‘widget template’.
Paste the code just above   < /head/>  tag
(I strongly recommend you to take a back up of your blog template before making any modifications like this.)
Save the template, and now see the blog has got new favicon. (Wait at least 10 minutes, and check first in internet explorer!)


Friday, March 19, 2010

Good news for Facebook lovers; Now it is most visited webiste in US beating

Facebook crosses another milestone! Now it is the most visited website in the US, beating the long time number one,! The social networking giant overtook Google's search engine page this week to become the most visited website in the U.S.

 According to research from web statistics firm Hitwise, Facebook edged google out by .4 percent, after almost tripling in unique visitors from the past year. Even though this is a very small margin, it is a great achievement for facebook, as it is rapidly grasping popularity in other countries.

By comparison, visits to search engine home increased only nine per cent in the same time - although the tracker does not include Google property sites such as the popular Gmail email service, YouTube and Google Maps.

Taken together, and amounted to 14 per cent of the entire US internet visits last week, Dougherty said.

Google has been positioning challenges in recent months to Facebook and the micro-blogging site Twitter by adding the social-networking feature Buzz to its Gmail service.

Facebook boasts some 400 million users while Gmail had 176 million unique visitors in December, according to tracking firm comScore.

Facebook, which first launched to the public in 2004, has become the de facto standard for social networking and has added music and games and enhanced content features. Google is also running social networking services similar to Facebook called ‘Orkut’, but it could not get much popularity except countries like Brazil and India.

Recently, Google has taken steps to counter Facebook by offering a social networking feature for their Gmail service called Buzz that lets users share media such as videos and photos. Google has indicated that they are considering making the Buzz feature a stand-alone service.

Wednesday, March 17, 2010

Internet Explorer 9 Beta Version Released, featuring HTML5, CSS3 and new JavaScript Engine.

Microsoft has released the beta for the newest version 9.0 of their most popular Internet Explorer browser. The beta has bunches of new features, however does not have the updated version 9 UI.
Version 9 has some important new things about it. For starters, there is support for HTML 5 and CSS 3, and a new JavaScript engine. IE9 also has an "Acid Test" feature that will let you test the compatibility and compliance of a website with IE9.

Additionally, this new browser is programmed to use your GPU much better: IE9 uses your computer's GPU to enhance hardware scalable vector graphics (SVG), JavaScript performance, and HTML5 performance.
Microsoft’s new JavaScript will also better take advantage of multiple CPU cores. With a dual core CPU, IE9 will be able to dedicate the second core to translating JavaScript to native machine code to help speed up the browser.
Microsoft pointed out that IE9 will not run on Windows XP at all, and even in Windows Vista, Service Pack 2 must be installed to load IE9.
This is just the first of many IE9 preview builds that will precede the first beta release. Microsoft not yet announced the date of final release, but we can guess that it will be release during late 2011.

Dowload Internet Explorer 9 Platform Preview Here

Monday, March 8, 2010

Windows Server 2008; Upgrading Current IIS versions to IIS7.

Upgrading the current Internet Information Service to IIS 7 possible, but you should meet be two pre requisites mentioned below:
·         Source operating system must be Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 or greater.
·         Current IIS version should be IIS 6.0
·         For Windows Vista, the source operating system must be Windows XP Service Pack 2 or greater, and IIS 5.1
NOTE: Upgrading from any version of Windows 2000, running IIS 5.0, to Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 running IIS 7.0 is not supported.
The upgrade process takes place over three stages: detect & gather, installation, and applying of settings. These steps only apply to operating system features and settings; any file system content not created or owned by the operating system will remain intact through the upgrade process.  What this means is that all web content present on the original operating system will be present after the upgrade.
Detect & Gather
During the operating system upgrade to Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008, IIS detection components are run on the existing operating system before the actual upgrade begins. If IIS is detected on the existing Windows operating system, all metabase and IIS state information will be gathered and persisted. The information gathered is persisted in a the IIS7_Gather.log file located in the %windir%

Sponsored Links

The installation phase consists of installing the Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 operating system, and then installing any optional features (such as IIS) if they were detected on the original operating system. The choice of which IIS 7.0 updates to install is based on the IIS state information gathered from the original operating system.
Applying Settings
After the operating system installation and optional feature installations have completed, the state information gathered from the original operating system is applied.  This is when the IIS metabase settings from the original IIS installation are translated and updated into the new IIS 7.0 config store, ApplicationHost.config.

Oclist.exe lists all the packages to use with ocsetup.exe to add/remove a role or feature. This also tells you if something is not installed on the server.
Windows optional components are parts of the Windows operating system that can be individually added, removed, enabled, or disabled. You can use the Ocsetup.exe tool at the command prompt to install or to remove Windows Vista optional components. You must have administrative credentials to run the Ocsetup.exe tool.
For further reading on using OCSetup.exe, refer this KB article:

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...